Objectives: Although cross-sectional studies have shown that ankylosing spondylitis-specific factors correlate with depressive symptom severity, the association of these factors over time is unresolved. We examined the demographic and clinical factors associated with longitudinal depressive symptom severity in AS patients. Methods: We analyzed sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral and medication data from 991 patients from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Ankylosing spondylitis cohort, and measured depression severity with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale administered at approximately 6-month visit intervals. Multivariable longitudinal negative binomial regression models were conducted using generalized estimating equation modeling to assess the demographic, clinical, and medication-related factors associated with depression severity by CES-D scores over time. Results: The median baseline CES-D score (possible range 0–60) was 10.0 (interquartile range = 5, 17). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, higher CES-D scores were associated with longitudinal smoking, greater functional impairment, greater disease activity, self-reported depression, and poor global health scores. Marital status (e.g., being married) was associated with lower CES-D. Adjusted mean CES-D scores in our model decreased over time, with a significant interaction between time and gender observed. Conclusion: This study identified longitudinal clinical factors such as greater disease activity, greater functional impairment, and poor global health to be associated with longitudinal depression severity. These factors are potentially modifiable and may help manage depressive symptoms in AS.
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Pharmacologic therapy