Background Survivors of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors experience high rates of treatment-related neurologic sequelae. Whether survivors continue to be at increased risk for new events as they age is unknown. Methods Adverse neurologic health conditions in 5-year survivors of CNS tumors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 1876) were evaluated longitudinally at a median 23.0 years from diagnosis (range, 5.1-38.9), median age at last evaluation 30.3 years (range, 6.1-56.4). Multivariable regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results From 5 to 30 years post diagnosis, cumulative incidence increased for seizures from 27% to 41%, motor impairment 21% to 35%, and hearing loss 9% to 23%. Risks were elevated compared with siblings (eg, seizures HR: 12.7; 95% CI: 9.6-16.7; motor impairment HR: 7.6; 95% CI: 5.8-9.9; hearing loss HR: 18.4; 95% CI: 13.1-25.9). Regional brain doses of radiation therapy were associated with development of new deficits (eg, frontal ≥50 Gy and motor impairment HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4). Increased risk for motor impairment was also associated with tumor recurrence (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.8-3.8), development of a meningioma (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 0.9-5.4), and stroke (HR: 14.9; 95% CI: 10.4-21.4). Seizure risk was doubled by recurrence (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.6-3.2), meningioma (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5), and stroke (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.4). Conclusions CNS tumor survivors remain at risk for new-onset adverse neurologic events across their lifespans at a rate greater than siblings. Cranial radiation, stroke, tumor recurrence, and development of meningioma were independently associated with late-onset adverse neurologic sequelae.
- childhood central nervous system tumor survivors
- late effects
- neurologic outcomes