Long wavelength light exposure reduces systemic inflammation coagulopathy and acute organ injury following multiple injuries in mice

Mohammadreza Zarisfi, Reem Younes, Nijmeh Alsaadi, Zeyu Liu, Patricia Loughran, Kelly Williamson, Philip C. Spinella, Susan M. Shea, Matthew R. Rosengart, Elizabeth A. Andraska, Matthew D. Neal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that variation in light exposure strongly influences the dynamic of inflammation, coagulation, and the immune system. Multiple injuries induce systemic inflammation that can lead to end-organ injury. Here, we hypothesize that alterations in light exposure influence posttrauma inflammation, coagulopathy, and end-organ injury. METHODS C57BL/6 mice underwent a validated multiple-injury and hemorrhage model performed following 72 hours of exposure to red (617 nm, 1,700 lux), blue (321 nm, 1,700 lux), and fluorescent white light (300 lux) (n = 6-8/group). The animals were sacrificed at 6 hours posttrauma. Plasma samples were evaluated and compared for proinflammatory cytokine expression levels, coagulation parameters, markers of liver and renal injury, and histological changes (Carstairs staining). One-way analysis of variance statistical tests were applied to compare study groups. RESULTS Preexposure to long-wavelength red light significantly reduced the inflammatory response at 6 hours after multiple injuries compared with blue and ambient light, as evidenced by decreased levels of interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (both p < 0.001), liver injury markers (alanine transaminase, p < 0.05), and kidney injury markers (cystatin C, p < 0.01). In addition, Carstairs staining of organ tissues revealed milder histological changes in the red light-exposed group, indicating reduced end-organ damage. Furthermore, prothrombin time was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and fibrinogen levels were better maintained (p < 0.01) in the red light-exposed mice compared with those exposed to blue and ambient light. CONCLUSION Prophylactic light exposure can be optimized to reduce systemic inflammation and coagulopathy and minimize acute organ injury following multiple injuries. Understanding the mechanisms by which light exposure attenuates inflammation may provide a novel strategy to reducing trauma-related morbidity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)901-908
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2024


  • Long-wavelength red light
  • inflammation
  • mice
  • multiple injuries
  • photobiomodulation
  • trauma-induced coagulopathy


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