Long-Term Outcomes of NRG Oncology/RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Anal Canal Cancer

Lisa A. Kachnic, Kathryn A. Winter, Robert J. Myerson, Michael D. Goodyear, Andre A. Abitbol, Oscar E. Streeter, Mark E. Augspurger, Tracey E. Schefter, Alan W. Katz, Barbara J. Fisher, Lauren E. Henke, Samir Narayan, Christopher H. Crane

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: A multi-institutional phase 2 trial assessed long-term outcomes of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) for anal canal cancer. Methods and Materials: T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancers received 5FU (1000 mg/m2/d, 96-hour infusion) and MMC (10 mg/m2 bolus) on days 1 and 29 of dose-painted IMRT prescribed as follows: T2N0 = 42 Gy elective nodal and 50.4 Gy anal tumor planning target volumes, 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3 = 45Gy elective nodal, 50.4 Gy ≤3 cm and 54 Gy >3cm metastatic nodal and 54 Gy anal tumor planning target volumes, 30 fractions. Local-regional failures, distant metastases, and colostomy failures were assessed using the cumulative incidence method, and disease-free survival, overall survival, and colostomy-free survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were scored using National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3. Results: Of 52 patients, 54% were stage II, 25% were stage IIIA, and 21% were stage IIIB. Median follow-up was 7.9 years (min-max, 0.02-9.2 years). Local-regional failure, colostomy failures, distant metastases, overall survival, disease-free survival, and colostomy-free survival at 5 years are 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-27%), 10% (95% CI, 4%-20%), 16% (95% CI, 7%-27%), 76% (95% CI, 61%-86%), 70% (95% CI, 56%-81%), and 74% (95% CI, 59%-84%); and at 8 years they are 16% (95% CI, 7%-27%), 12% (95% CI, 5%-23%), 22% (95% CI, 12%-34%), 68% (95% CI, 53%-79%), 62% (95% CI, 47%-74%) and 66% (95% CI, 51%-77%), respectively. Eight patients experienced local-regional failure, with 5 patients having persistent disease at 12 weeks. No isolated nodal failures occurred in the microscopic elective nodal volumes. Six patients required colostomy—5 for local-regional salvage and 1 for a temporary ostomy for anorectal dysfunction. Rates of late adverse events included: 28 patients (55%) with grade 2, 8 patients (16%) with grade 3, 0 patients with grade 4, and 2 patients (4%) with grade 5 events (sinus bradycardia and myelodysplasia, possibly owing to chemotherapy). Only 11 patients reported grade 1 to 3 sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: Dose-painted IMRT with 5FU/MMC for the treatment of anal canal cancer yields comparable long-term efficacy as conventional radiation cohorts. Enhanced normal tissue protection lowered rates of grade 3 and higher late effects without compromising pelvic tumor control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-157
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume112
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

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