Long-Term Neurobehavioral and Functional Outcomes of Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survivors

Ashley D. Turner, Madison M. Streb, Amy Ouyang, Skyler S. Leonard, Trevor A. Hall, Christopher C. Bosworth, Cydni N. Williams, Réjean M. Guerriero, Mary E. Hartman, Ahmed S. Said, Kristin P. Guilliams

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There are limited reports of neurobehavioral outcomes of children supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This observational study aims to characterize the long-term (≥1 year) neurobehavioral outcomes, identify risk factors associated with neurobehavioral impairment, and evaluate the trajectory of functional status in pediatric ECMO survivors. Pediatric ECMO survivors ≥1-year postdecannulation and ≥3 years of age at follow-up were prospectively enrolled and completed assessments of adaptive behavior (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Third Edition [Vineland-3]) and functional status (Functional Status Scale [FSS]). Patient characteristics were retrospectively collected. Forty-one ECMO survivors cannulated at 0.0-19.8 years (median: 2.4 [IQR: 0.0, 13.1]) were enrolled at 1.3-12.8 years (median: 5.5 [IQR: 3.3, 6.5]) postdecannulation. ECMO survivors scored significantly lower than the normative population in the Vineland-3 Adaptive Behavior Composite (85 [IQR: 70, 99], P < 0.001) and all domains (Communication, Daily Living, Socialization, Motor). Independent risk factors for lower Vineland-3 composite scores included extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, electrographic seizures during ECMO, congenital heart disease, and premorbid developmental delay. Of the 21 patients with impaired function at discharge (FSS ≥8), 86% reported an improved FSS at follow-up. Pediatric ECMO survivors have, on average, mild neurobehavioral impairment related to adaptive functioning years after decannulation. Continued functional recovery after hospital discharge is likely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-416
Number of pages8
JournalASAIO Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2024


  • Infants
  • adaptive behavior
  • children
  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • functional outcome


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