Purpose: Cyst proliferation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is associated with renal failure, hypertension and pain. We examined the long-term impact of laparoscopic cyst decortication on renal function, hypertension and pain control in patients with adult dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with refractory pain. Materials and Methods: Between 1994 and 2003, 37 patients with adult dominant polycystic kidney disease underwent laparoscopic cyst decortication at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. A total of 19 patients (4 male, 15 female) with at least 3-year followup were included in the study. Renal function was evaluated using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) estimated glomerular filtration rate formula. End stage renal disease was defined as progression to transplant, dialysis or stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Hypertension was evaluated using the antihypertensive therapeutic index. Pain assessment was based primarily on a telephone questionnaire. Results: At a mean followup of 10.9 years (range 6.4 to 16.9), 67% of evaluable patients reported more than 50% improvement in pain. Ten patients had progression to end stage renal disease - 3 dialysis, 6 transplant, and 1 chronic kidney disease stage 5. Two patients had stage 5 chronic kidney disease at initial presentation. A comparison of preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate between patients with and those without end stage renal disease revealed a lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate in the former group (43.4 vs 75.4 ml/minute/1.73 m2, p = 0.01). Of the patients 53% had an improved or stable antihypertensive therapeutic index at last followup, although no improvement in mean overall antihypertensive therapeutic index was noted (4.7 pre-laparoscopic cyst decortications vs 7.0 post-laparoscopic cyst decortications, p = 0.28). Conclusions: Durable pain relief but not hypertension control was seen at 10-year followup. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate is a strong predictor of post-laparoscopic cyst decortication progression to end stage renal disease. A cautious approach with laparoscopic cyst decortication should be taken in patients with poor preoperative renal function.
- polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant