CALGB (Alliance) 100001 was a phase II study evaluating autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) followed by nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma who had received no more than 18 months of prior therapy and had experienced no more than 1 prior progression event. Conditioning for ASCT was with high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2). The alloSCT reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m2/d i.v. on days -7 through -3) and cyclophosphamide (1 g/m2/d i.v. on days -4 through -3). The primary objective was to determine the 6-month post-alloSCT treatment-related mortality (TRM) rate. Additional objectives included determining the proportion of patients who could complete this tandem ASCT-alloSCT approach in a cooperative group setting, overall response rates, rates of donor chimerism, rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Sixty patients were enrolled, of whom 57 (95%) completed ASCT and 49 (82%) completed tandem ASCT-alloSCT. The TRM rate was 2% (1/49; 90% confidence interval, 0.10% to 9.3%). Moderate to severe (grades 2 to 3) acute GVHD was observed in 13 of 49 alloSCT patients (27%). One patient died due to GVHD within 9 months of alloSCT. Twenty-seven of the 49 patients (55%) who underwent alloSCT reported chronic GVHD as either limited (15/49; 31%) or extensive (12/49; 24%) in the first year post-alloSCT and prior to the start of nonprotocol therapy for progressive disease. With a median follow-up for survival of 11 years, the median OS time is 6.6 years and the median time to disease progression is 3.6 years. Similar to other studies, this study confirmed that tandem ASCT/alloSCT is associated with durable disease control in a subset of patients. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing tandem ASCT/alloSCT in a cooperative group setting and determined that a fludarabine/cyclophosphamide RIC regimen is associated with a very low TRM rate.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplant
- Autologous stem cell transplant
- Multiple myeloma
- Reduced-intensity conditioning