Purpose: To identify peri-operative risk factors and time to onset of pancreatic endocrine/exocrine insufficiency. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a single institutional series of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or distal pancreatectomy (DP) between 2000 and 2015. Endocrine/exocrine insufficiencies were defined as need for new pharmacologic intervention. Cox proportional modeling was used to identify peri-operative variables to determine their impact on post-operative pancreatic insufficiency. Results: A total of 1717 patient records were analyzed (75.47% PD, 24.53% DP) at median follow-up 17.88 months. Average age was 62.62 years, 51.78% were male, and surgery was for malignancy in 74.35% of patients. Post-operative endocrine insufficiency was present in 20.15% (n = 346). Male gender (p = 0.015), increased body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001), tobacco use (p = 0.011), family history of diabetes (DM) (p < 0.001), personal history of DM (p ≤ 0.001), and DP (p ≤ 0.001) were correlated with increased risk. Mean time to onset was 20.80 ± 33.60 (IQR: 0.49–28.37) months. Post-operative exocrine insufficiency was present in 36.23% (n = 622). Race (p = 0.014), lower BMI (p < 0.001), family history of DM (p = 0.007), steatorrhea (p < 0.001), elevated pre-operative bilirubin (p = 0.019), and PD (p ≤ 0.001) were correlated with increased risk. Mean time to onset was 14.20 ± 26.90 (IQR: 0.89–12.69) months. Conclusions: In this large series of pancreatectomy patients, 20.15% and 36.23% of patients developed post-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency at a mean time to onset of 20.80 and 14.20 months, respectively. Patients should be educated regarding post-resection insufficiencies and providers should have heightened awareness long-term.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1604-1613
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019


  • Distal pancreatectomy
  • Pancreatic endocrine insufficiency
  • Pancreatic enzyme replacement
  • Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy


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