Background: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) genetic test reports commonly exclude potentially proarrhythmic common variants such as p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a discernible phenotype is associated with p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1 and whether relatively common KCNE1 variants underlie transient QT prolongation pedigrees with negative commercial LQTS genetic tests. Methods: Retrospective review was used to compare demographics, symptomatology, and QT parameters of individuals with p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1 in the absence of other rare/ultra-rare variants in LQTS-susceptibility genes and those who underwent comprehensive LQTS genetic testing. Results: Compared to the Genome Aggregation Database, p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1 was more prevalent in individuals undergoing LQTS genetic testing (33/1248 [2.6%] vs 1552/126,652 [1.2%]; P =.0001). In 19 of 33 patients (58%), only p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1 was observed. These patients were predominantly female (90% vs 62%; P =.01) and were less likely to experience syncope (0% vs 34%; P =.0007), receive β-blockers (53% vs 85%; P =.001), or require an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (5.3% vs 33%; P =.01). However, they exhibited a similar degree of QT prolongation (QTc 460 ms vs 467 ms; P = NS). Whole exome sequencing of 2 commercially genotype-negative pedigrees revealed that p.Asp85Asn-KCNE1 and p.Arg36His-KCNE1 traced with a transient QT prolongation phenotype. Functional characterization of p.Arg36His-KCNE1 demonstrated loss of function, with a 47% reduction in peak I Ks current density in the heterozygous state. Conclusion: We provide further evidence that relatively common variants in KCNE1 may result in a mild QT phenotype designated as “LQT5-Lite” to distinguish such potentially proarrhythmic common variants (ie, functional risk alleles) from rare pathogenic variants that truly confer monogenic disease susceptibility, albeit with incomplete penetrance.
- Long QT syndrome
- Sudden death