Long-acting antiretrovirals and HIV treatment adherence

Jean B. Nachega, Kimberly K. Scarsi, Monica Gandhi, Rachel K. Scott, Lynne M. Mofenson, Moherndran Archary, Sharon Nachman, Eric Decloedt, Elvin H. Geng, Lindsay Wilson, Angeli Rawat, John W. Mellors

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Intramuscular injection of long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine is a novel, long-acting antiretroviral therapy (ART) combination approved for use as a fully suppressive regimen for people living with HIV. Long-acting cabotegravir with rilpivirine ART has reduced required dosing frequency from once daily to once every month or every 2 months injections. This new era of long-acting ART, which includes other antiretrovirals and formulations in various stages of clinical development, holds tremendous promise to change the standard of HIV treatment. Although long-acting ART has high potential to be revolutionary in the landscape of HIV care, prevention, and treatment cascade, more data are needed to substantiate its efficacy and cost-effectiveness among patients at risk of non-adherence and across age groups, pregnancy, and post partum. Advocacy efforts and policy changes to optimise a sustained, high-quality, equitable reach of long-acting ART, especially in low-income and middle-income countries where most people living with HIV reside, are needed to realise the full benefits of long-acting ART.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e332-e342
JournalThe Lancet HIV
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


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