Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with its rapid imaging rate (30 video frames per second) and immediately available subtraction images, provides excellent vascular detail in localization of the exact site of internal carotid-cavernous fistula. In a patient with two fistulas, we successfully used DSA to determine the sites of fistula and accurately positioned detachable balloons to occlude them.
- Balloon occlusion, percutaneous
- Carotid-cavernous fistula
- DSA, diagnosis
- Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA)