Evidence suggests a relationship between dietary fat intake, obesity, and colorectal cancer, implying a role for fatty acid metabolism in intestinal tumorigenesis that is incompletely understood. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp), a dominant intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, regulates intestinal fatty acid trafficking and metabolism, and L-Fabp deletion attenuates diet-induced obesity. Here, we examined whether changes in intestinal fatty acid metabolism following L-Fabp deletion modify adenoma development in Apc Min/+ mice. Compound L-Fabp-/- ApcMin/+ mice were generated and fed a 10% fat diet balanced equally between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. L-Fabp-/- Apc Min/+ mice displayed significant reductions in adenoma number and total polyp area compared with ApcMin/+ controls, reflecting a significant shift in distribution toward smaller polyps. Adenomas from L-Fabp-/- ApcMin/+ mice exhibited reductions in cellular proliferation, high-grade dysplasia, and nuclear β-catenin translocation. Intestinal fatty acid content was increased in L-Fabp-/- Apc Min/+ mice, and lipidomic profiling of intestinal mucosa revealed significant shifts to polyunsaturated fatty acid species with reduced saturated fatty acid species. L-Fabp-/- ApcMin/+ mice also showed corresponding changes in mRNA expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid elongation and desaturation. Furthermore, adenomas from L-Fabp-/- ApcMin/+ mice displayed significant reductions in mRNA abundance of nuclear hormone receptors involved in cellular proliferation and in enzymes involved in lipogenesis. These findings collectively implicate L-Fabp as an important genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis, and identify fatty acid trafficking and metabolic compartmentalization as an important pathway linking dietary fat intake, obesity, and intestinal tumor formation.