Liver Disease in Pregnancy and Transplant

Saad Alghamdi, Jaquelyn Fleckenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review is to discuss current and new knowledge regarding liver disease in pregnancy and pregnancy post-liver transplantation. Recent Findings: Severe liver disease associated with pregnancy is rare. Liver biopsy is rarely needed for diagnosis but is safe in selected cases. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) with serum bile acids level > 40 μmol/L is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Ursodeoxycholic acid should be initiated at diagnosis. Portal hypertension can worsen during pregnancy and screening endoscopy should be performed in the 2nd trimester. Maternal hepatitis B antiviral therapy can be considered in the 3rd trimester if HVB DNA > 200,000 IU/ml. Tacrolimus is the optimal immunosuppressive therapy during pregnancy post-transplantation. Preconception renal function predicts pregnancy outcome. Overall, the outcome of pregnancy post-transplantation is good but there is an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, hypertension, and pre-eclampsia. Summary: Liver disease of pregnancy can be divided into diseases unique to pregnancy, exacerbated by pregnancy or coexisting with pregnancy. Overall, the outcome of pregnancy post-liver transplantation is good.

Original languageEnglish
Article number43
JournalCurrent gastroenterology reports
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • AFLP
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis
  • Viral hepatitis and pregnancy, pregnancy post-transplantation


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