Lipoteichoic acid of Streptococcus gordonii as a negative regulator of human dendritic cell activation

Sun Kyung Kim, Jintaek Im, Eun Byeol Ko, Dongwook Lee, Ho Seong Seo, Cheol Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han

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3 Scopus citations


Streptococcus gordonii, an opportunistic Gram-positive bacterium, causes an infective endocarditis that could be fatal to human health. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to be involved in disease progression and immune responses in S. gordonii infection. Since lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a representative virulence factor of S. gordonii, we here investigated its role in the activation of human DCs stimulated with LTA-deficient (ΔltaS) S. gordonii or S. gordonii LTA. DCs were differentiated from human blood-derived monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days. DCs treated with heat-killed ΔltaS S. gordonii (ΔltaS HKSG) showed relatively higher binding and phagocytic activities than those treated with heat-killed wild-type S. gordonii (wild-type HKSG). Furthermore, ΔltaS HKSG was superior to wild-type HKSG in inducing phenotypic maturation markers including CD80, CD83, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2, antigen-presenting molecule MHC class II, and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Concomitantly, DCs treated with the ΔltaS HKSG induced better T cell activities, including proliferation and activation marker (CD25) expression, than those treated with the wild-type. LTA, but not lipoproteins, isolated from S. gordonii weakly activated TLR2 and barely affected the expression of phenotypic maturation markers or cytokines in DCs. Collectively, these results demonstrated that LTA is not a major immuno-stimulating agent of S. gordonii but rather it interferes with bacteria-induced DC maturation, suggesting its potential role in immune evasion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1056949
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - 2023


  • dendritic cell
  • immune evasion
  • lipoprotein
  • lipoteichoic acid
  • Streptococcus gordonii
  • T cell activation


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