Immunotherapy is an attractive approach for treating cancer. T-cell engagers (TCEs) are a type of immunotherapy that are highly efficacious; however, they are challenged by weak T-cell activation and short persistence. Therefore, alternative solutions to induce greater activation and persistence of T cells during TCE immunotherapy is needed. Methods to activate T cells include the use of lectins, such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA). PHA has not been used to activate T cells in vivo, for immunotherapy, due to its biological instability and toxicity. An approach to overcome the limitations of PHA while also preserving its function is needed. In this study, we report a liposomal PHA which increased PHA stability, reduced toxicity and performed as an immunotherapeutic that is able to activate T cells for the use in future cancer immunotherapies to circumvent current obstacles in immunosuppression and T-cell exhaustion.
- T-cell activation