Blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate in the lungs and can modulate pulmonary inflammatory and reparative processes through their elaboration of cytokines and growth factors. Endotoxemia, often a prelude to acute lung injury, induces a monocytopenia, likely resulting from monocyte accumulation in the lung. We hypothesized that LPS would induce monocyte lung retention by increasing monocyte stiffness and thereby diminishing the cell's ability to deform and transit the narrow pulmonary capillary network, and that LPS would induce CD18-dependent adhesion of monocytes to endothelium, prolonging their retention. LPS induced a rapid and concentration-dependent increase in human monocyte stiffness, net filamentous actin assembly, and retention in a filtration model of pulmonary capillaries. These LPS-induced responses were dependent on the integrity of actin filaments in that cytochalasin D, an agent that disrupts filamentous actin assembly, attenuated each of these processes. LPS induced CD18-dependent and -independent human monocyte adhesion to unstimulated human endothelial cell monolayers. In vivo, rabbit monocytes were retained in the lungs of animals rendered endotoxemic. Pretreatment of monocytes ex vivo with LPS enhanced their lung retention suggesting that LPS was acting directly on monocytes. Initial lung retention during endotoxemia was attenuated by inhibiting monocyte F-actin assembly with cytochalasin D. Anti-CD18 Abs caused a slight decrease in initial retention of monocytes, but led to a 90% inhibition of retention by 2 h. Control IgG had no effect. These data suggest that the initial retention of monocytes in the lung during endotoxemia is dependent on alterations in their stiffness and assembly/organization of F-actin, and that CD18-dependent adhesive mechanisms prolong monocyte retention in the lung during this process.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - Jul 1 1994|