The innate immune system has evolved to recognize diverse microbes and destroy them. At the same time, microbial pathogens undermine immunity to cause disease. Here, we highlight recent advances in understanding an antimicrobial pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), which combines features of autophagy with phagocytosis. Upon phagocytosis, many microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites, are sequestered in an LC3-positive, single-membrane bound compartment, a hallmark of LAP. LAP depends upon NADPH oxidase activity at the incipient phagosome and culminates in lysosomal trafficking and microbial degradation. Most often LAP is an effective host defense, but some pathogens evade LAP or replicate successfully in this microenvironment. Here, we review how LAP targets microbial pathogens and strategies pathogens employ to circumvent LAP.