Late gastrointestinal tissue effects after hypofractionated radiation therapy of the pancreas

Adnan Elhammali, Mukund Patel, Benjamin Weinberg, Vivek Verma, Jingxia Liu, Jeffrey R. Olsen, Hiram A. Gay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Background: To consolidate literature reports of serious late gastrointestinal toxicities after hypofractionated radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer and attempt to derive normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) parameters using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Methods: Published reports of late grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal toxicity after hypofractionated treatment of pancreatic cancer were reviewed. The biologically equivalent dose in 1.8 Gy fractions was calculated using the EQD model. NTCP parameters were calculated using the LKB model assuming 1-5 % of the normal tissue volume was exposed to the prescription dose with aα/β ratios of 3 or 4. Results: A total of 16 human studies were examined encompassing a total of 1160 patients. Toxicities consisted of ulcers, hemorrhages, obstructions, strictures, and perforations. Non-hemorrhagic and non-perforated ulcers occurred at a rate of 9.1 % and were the most commonly reported toxicity. Derived NTCP parameter ranges were as follows: n = 0.38-0.63, m = 0.48-0.49, and TD50 = 35-95 Gy. Regression analysis showed that among various study characteristics, dose was the only significant predictor of toxicity. Conclusions: Published gastrointestinal toxicity reports after hypofractionated radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer were compiled. Median dose was predictive of late grade ≥ 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Preliminary NTCP parameters were derived for multiple volume constraints.

Original languageEnglish
Article number186
JournalRadiation Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 4 2015


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