Purpose:Bladder cancer management options include open radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal or extracorporeal urinary diversion. The existing literature shows no difference in the major complication rate between open radical cystectomy and extracorporeal urinary diversion. However, the emerging popularity of intracorporeal urinary diversion has exposed the need to compare a completely intracorporeal method to alternative approaches. To our knowledge the robotic intracorporeal advantage regarding major complications has not yet been established in an evaluation of all 3 modalities. We compared outcomes and complications of open, intracorporeal and extracorporeal cystectomy techniques at a high volume institution.Materials and Methods:We queried a prospectively maintained database for patients who underwent radical cystectomy from 2011 to 2018 for an oncologic indication. Perioperative and pathological outcomes, and 30 and 90-day major complications were assessed. Statistical analyses were done using the Pearson chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Kaplan-Meier tests, and multivariable regression.Results:A total of 948 patients met the study criteria, including 272, 301 and 375 treated with open radical cystectomy, intracorporeal urinary diversion and extracorporeal urinary diversion, respectively. Median followup was 26 months. Intracorporeal urinary diversion cases had lower estimated blood loss (p <0.001), shorter hospitalization (p <0.001) and a lower ileus rate (p=0.023) than extracorporeal urinary diversion and open radical cystectomy cases. Importantly, intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with lower 30 and 90-day major complication rates vs extracorporeal urinary diversion and open radical cystectomy (90-day Clavien-Dindo III-V 16.9% vs 24.8% and 26.1%, respectively, p=0.015). There was no significant difference in the readmission rate according to the surgical approach. Multivariable predictors of increased 90-day major complications were patient age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and operative time. On multivariable analysis intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with reduced 90-day major complications (OR 0.58, p=0.037).Conclusions:In a 3-way comparison intracorporeal urinary diversion demonstrated a lower major complication rate and perioperative benefits compared to extracorporeal urinary diversion and open radical cystectomy.
- minimally invasive surgical procedures
- postoperative complications
- robotic surgical procedures
- urinary bladder neoplasms
- urinary diversion