Laparoscopic cyst decortication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Impact on pain, hypertension, and renal function

David I. Lee, Cassio R. Andreoni, Jamil Rehman, Jaime Landman, Maged Ragab, Yan Yan, Cathy Chen, Alan Shindel, William Middleton, Arieh Shalhav, Elspeth M. McDougall, Ralph V. Clayman

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24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose: In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), laparoscopic cyst decortication (LCD) has been proposed as a means to relieve chronic cyst-related pain. We present our 7-year experience with LCD for ADPKD with regard to pain relief, hypertension, and renal function. Patients and Methods: Between August 1994 and February 2001, 29 ADPKD patients with chronic pain (N = 29), hypertension (N = 21), and renal insufficiency (N = 10) underwent 35 LCD procedures. Every detectable cyst within 2 mm of the renal surface was treated. Pain relief was assessed using a pain analog scale; relative pain relief (RPR) equaled (preoperative pain score) - (postoperative pain score)/(preoperative pain score). Hypertension was evaluated using the antihypertensive therapeutic index (ATI): [(dose of blood pressure medication 1/max dose 1) + (dose med 2/max dose 2) + etc.] × 10. Renal function was assessed using the Cockcroft and Gault formula for creatinine clearance. Results: The mean operating room time was 4.9 hours (range 2.6-6.6 hours) with no conversions to open surgery. An average of 220 cysts (range 4-692) were treated per patient. The mean follow-up was 32.3 months (range 6-72 months). The RPR was 58%, 47%, and 63% at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. At 12, 24, and 36 months, 73%, 52%, and 81% of patients, respectively, noted >50% improvement in their pain compared with the preoperative situation. Five patients became normotensive, and patients improved their ATI by an average of 49% (range 11%-93%). However, six patients had worsening hypertension, with an ATI increase averaging 53% (range 11%-122%), and one patient who was not hypertensive preoperatively has since developed hypertension. The creatinine clearance changed +4%, +7%, and -2% at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Only one patient had a >20% increase in creatinine clearance. The only patients with a >20% decrease in creatinine clearance were those who had a creatinine clearance <30 mg/dL preoperatively (average decrease 34% [range 20%-51%]). Conclusions: For ADPKD patients with debilitating pain, extensive LCD can provide durable relief. In the majority of patients with pain and hypertension, a marked improvement in blood pressure also occurs. Cyst decortication was not associated with worsening renal function; indeed, renal function remained largely unchanged over the 3-year follow-up period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-354
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Endourology
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2003

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