Background: Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common. Methods: In orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy, we developed and prospectively validated pharmacogenetic and clinical dose refinement algorithms to revise the estimated therapeutic dose after 4 days of therapy. Results: The pharmacogenetic algorithm used the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genotype, smoking status, peri-operative blood loss, liver disease, INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose. The R2 was 82% in a derivation cohort (n=86) and 70% when used prospectively (n=146). The R2 of the clinical algorithm that used INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose was 57% in a derivation cohort (n=178) and 48% in a prospective validation cohort (n=146). In 1month of prospective follow-up, the percent time spent in the therapeutic range was 7% higher (95% CI: 2.7-11.7) in the pharmacogenetic cohort. The risk of a laboratory or clinical adverse event was also significantly reduced in the pharmacogenetic cohort (Hazard Ratio 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.97). Conclusions: Warfarin dose adjustments that incorporate genotype and clinical variables available after four warfarin doses are accurate. In this non-randomized, prospective study, pharmacogenetic dose refinements were associated with more time spent in the therapeutic range and fewer laboratory or clinical adverse events.
- Dosing algorithm
- Orthopedic surgery