Knowledge, perception, attitudes and behavior on influenza immunization and the determinants of vaccination

Khalil Choucair, Jack El Sawda, Sarah Assaad, Nadim G. El Chakhtoura, Habiba Hassouna, Nisreen Sidani, Mohamad Yasmin, Ali Rteil, Souha S. Kanj, Zeina A. Kanafani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: We sought to determine the knowledge of, perception, attitudes, and behaviors toward influenza virus and immunization, and the determinants of vaccination among students, patients, and Healthcare Workers (HCWs) at the American University of Beirut and its affiliated Medical Center. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 2016 and January 2017 utilizing a self-administered questionnaire that was provided to 247 randomly selected adult participants. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics, prior vaccination against influenza, knowledge, perception, attitudes, and behaviors toward influenza and influenza immunization. A multivariable regression model was used to evaluate for independent associations between the different variables and regular or yearly vaccination as a primary outcome. Results: The overall survey response rate was 77%. A substantial proportion of respondents (47.4%) had never received the influenza vaccine. Only 10.2% of students, 19.1% of patients, and 35.6% of HCWs reported regular or yearly influenza vaccine uptake. HCWs had the lowest knowledge score about influenza and its vaccine despite high self-reported levels of knowledge. Barriers to vaccinations included lack of information (31%), fear of adverse effects (29%), and a perception of not being at risk (23%). Several factors were independently associated with regular or yearly vaccination uptake including having children (adjusted OR = 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–12.5), a “very good” self-reported level of knowledge (OR = 16.3; 95% CI 1.4–194.2) and being afraid of the consequences of influenza (OR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.1–0.6). Conclusion: Adherence rates with regular or yearly vaccination against influenza remain low across all study groups. We were able to identify predictors as well as barriers to vaccination. Future awareness and vaccination campaigns should specifically aim at correcting misconceptions about vaccination, particularly among HCWs, along with addressing the barriers to vaccination. Predictors of vaccination should be integrated in the design of future campaigns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-41
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Influenza determinants of vaccination healthcare workers health-belief model KAB perception


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