Knee Flexion Angle of Fixation During Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction or Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Lateral Extra-articular Reinforcement Techniques Performed in Conjunction With ACL Reconstruction

David A. Kolin, John Apostolakos, Peter D. Fabricant, Bridget Jivanelli, Yi Meng Yen, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher, Andrew Tennant Pennock, Jeffrey J. Nepple, Samuel Clifton Willimon, Crystal Ann Perkins, Henry Bone Ellis, Philip L. Wilson, Michael McClincy, James Everett Voos, David D. Spence, Benton E. Heyworth

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Anterolateral ligament reconstruction (ALLR) or lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) is being used more frequently in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, the knee flexion angle at which fixation of ALLR or LET is performed during the procedure is quite variable based on existing technique descriptions. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to identify whether flexion angle at the time of ALLR/LET fixation affected postoperative outcomes in a clinical population. It was hypothesized that ALLR/LET fixation at low versus high flexion angles would lead to no statistically significant differences in patient-reported outcome measures and graft failure rates. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to identify published clinical studies of ACLR with ALLR/LET in which the knee flexion angle at the time of ALLR/LET was reported. A priori, low flexion was defined as 0° to 30°, and high flexion was defined as 60° to 90°. Studies were excluded if the flexion angle was between 31° and 59° because these angles constituted neither low nor high flexion angles and including them in an analysis of high versus low flexion angle at fixation would have biased the study results toward the null. The overall risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The pooled results of the studies were analyzed using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm, and Tegner scores, along with reported graft failure rates. Results: A total of 32 clinical studies (5230 patients) met inclusion criteria: 22 studies (1999 patients) in the low-flexion group and 10 studies (3231 patients) in the high-flexion group. The median Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score was 6. Comparisons of patients with a low flexion angle versus a high flexion angle demonstrated no differences in the IKDC (P =.84), Lysholm (P =.67), or Tegner (P =.44) scores or in graft failure (3.4% vs 4.1%, respectively; P =.69). Conclusion: The results of this review indicated that ACLR performed in conjunction with ALLR/LET provides good to excellent patient-reported outcomes and low graft failure rates when ALLR/LET fixation is performed in either low or high knee flexion.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • anterolateral ligament reconstruction
  • flexion angle
  • graft failure
  • lateral extra-articular tenodesis
  • patient-reported outcomes

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