Kinematic Modeling Based Decomposition of Transmitral Flow (Doppler E-Wave) Deceleration Time into Stiffness and Relaxation Components

Sina Mossahebi, Sándor J. Kovács

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6 Scopus citations


The mechanical suction-pump feature of the left ventricle aspirates atrial blood and generates a rapid rise and fall in transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave). Initially, E-wave deceleration time (DT), a routine index of clinical diastolic function, was thought to be determined only by chamber stiffness. Kinematic modeling of filling, in analogy to damped oscillatory motion [Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism], has been extensively validated and accurately predicts clinically observed E-wave contours while, revealing that DT is actually an algebraic function of both stiffness (PDF parameter k) and relaxation (PDF parameter c). We hypothesize that kinematic modeling based E-wave analysis accurately predicts the stiffness (DTs) and relaxation (DTr) components of DT such that DT = DTs + DTr. For validation, pressure-volume (P-V) and E-wave data from 12 control (DT < 220 ms) and 12 delayed-relaxation (DT > 220 ms) subjects, 738 beats total, were analyzed. For each E-wave, DTs and DTr was compared to simultaneous, gold-standard, high fidelity (Millar catheter) determined, chamber stiffness (K = ΔP/ΔV) and chamber relaxation (time-constant of isovolumic relaxation-τ), respectively. For the group linear regression yielded DTs = α K + β (R = 0.82) with α = -0.38 and β = 0.20, and DTr = m τ + b (R = 0.94) with m = 2.88 and b = -0.12. We conclude that PDF-based E-wave analysis provides the DTs and DTr components of DT with simultaneous chamber stiffness (K) and relaxation (τ) respectively, as primary determinants. This kinematic modeling based method of E-wave analysis is immediately translatable clinically and can assess the effects of pathology and pharmacotherapy as causal determinants of DT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-34
Number of pages10
JournalCardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Diastolic function
  • E-wave deceleration time
  • LV relaxation
  • LV stiffness
  • PDF formalism


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