Objective: To determine whether microstructural features on a kidney biopsy specimen obtained during kidney transplant surgery predict long-term risk of chronic kidney disease in the donor. Patients and Methods: We studied kidney donors from May 1, 1999, through December 31, 2018, with a follow-up survey for the results of recent blood pressure and kidney function tests (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and proteinuria). If not recently available, blood pressure and eGFRs were requested from a local clinic. Microstructural features on kidney biopsy at the time of donation were assessed as predictors of hypertension and kidney function after adjusting for years of follow-up, baseline age, sex, and clinical predictors. Results: There were 807 donors surveyed a mean 10.5 years after donation. An eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 6.4% (43/673) of donors was predicted by larger glomerular volume per standard deviation (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.04) and nephron number below the age-specific 5th percentile (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.31 to 8.72). An eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 42.5% (286/673) of donors was not predicted by any microstructural feature. Residual eGFR (postdonation/predonation eGFR) was predicted by nephron number below the age-specific 5th percentile (difference, −6.07%; 95% CI, −10.24% to −1.89%). Self-reported proteinuria in 5.1% (40/786) of donors was predicted by larger glomerular volume (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.86). Incident hypertension in 18.8% (119/633) of donors was not predicted by any microstructural features. Conclusion: Low nephron number for age and larger glomeruli are important microstructural predictors for long-term risk of chronic kidney disease after living kidney donation.