This chapter describes the methods of isolation of mouse periosteal progenitor cells. There are three basic methods utilized. The bone grafting method was developed utilizing the fracture healing process to expand the progenitor populations. Bone capping methods requires enzymatic digestion and purification of cells from the native periosteum, while the Egression/Explant method requires the least manipulation with placement of cortical bone fragments with attached periosteum in a culture dish. Various cell surface antibodies have been employed over the years to characterize periosteum derived progenitor cells, but the most consistent minimal criteria was recommended by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. Confirmation of the multipotent status of these isolated cells can be achieved by differentiation into the three basic mesodermal lineages in vitro.