In summary, integrating pharmacogenetic testing into the primary care setting could benefit many patients. Formidable challenges to its wide dissemination include patients' and physicians' fears of privacy, patient education and physician acceptance. Physicians seem to be open to phamacogenetic research as long as it tests a clearly stated hypothesis and protects privacy. Patients will look to their physicians for advice about pharmacogenetic testing, both routine and research. In addition to conducting studies searching for pharmacogenetic associations and developing pharmacogenetic interventions, researchers must devise strategies to allay patient and physician concerns.