Investigating the role of familial and peer-related factors on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use among U.S. adolescents

Patricia Cavazos-Rehg, Xiao Li, Erin Kasson, Nina Kaiser, Jacob Borodovsky, Richard A. Grucza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Introduction: Tobacco use is a public health concern, and adolescents are at an increased risk of starting and continuing to use tobacco relative to other age groups. Parent involvement and other social environmental factors may influence the development and persistence of tobacco use behaviors in adolescence. This study used the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study data set, and responses from 7025 adolescent participants were analyzed to illustrate the longitudinal relationship between social environment influences and use of adolescent electronic nicotine delivery systems (i.e., ENDS). Methods: Social environmental factors were assessed at Wave 3 and then compared to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) status transitions (i.e., initiation, expansion, persistence) at follow-up. Survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Initiation and persistence of ENDS use were associated with tobacco availability in the house, perception of having no adverse parent reaction to discovering ENDS use and having a best friend who uses ENDS. Initiation of ENDS use was further associated with having biological relatives who have ever been diagnosed with a substance use disorder (SUD) and persistence of ENDS use was also positively associated with lack of in-house rules. Parents talking about ENDS use with adolescents had no association across all three outcomes. Conclusions: Findings suggest that parental and environmental factors alter the risk of initiation and persistence of ENDS and tobacco use in adolescents, and these should be considered when working with this at-risk population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-105
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Adolescence
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Adolescents
  • ENDS
  • Parent tobacco use
  • Peer tobacco use
  • Substance use
  • Tobacco


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