Inventory of complicated grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss

Holly G. Prigerson, Paul K. Maciejewski, Charles F. Reynolds, Andrew J. Bierhals, Jason T. Newsom, Amy Fasiczka, Ellen Frank, Jack Doman, Mark Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1055 Scopus citations


Certain symptoms of grief have been shown 1. (a) to be distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, and 2. (b) to predict long-term functional impairments. We termed these symptoms of "complicated grief" and developed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) to assess them. Data were derived from 97 conjugally bereaved elders who completed the ICG, along with other self-report scales measuring grief, depression, and background characteristics. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that the ICG measured a single underlying construct of complicated grief. High internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were evidence of the ICG's reliability. The ICG total score's association with severity of depressive symptoms and a general measure of grief suggested a valid, yet distinct, assessment of emotional distress. Respondents with ICG scores >25 were significantly more impaired in social, general, mental, and physical health functioning and in bodily pain than those with ICG scores ≤25. Thus, the ICG, a scale with demonstrated internal consistency, and convergent and criterion validity, provides an easily administered assessment for symptoms of complicated grief.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-79
Number of pages15
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Nov 29 1995


  • Bereavement
  • Depression
  • Factor analysis


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