Intraocular Pressure and Medication Changes Associated with Xen Gel Stent: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Joseph F. Panarelli, Vanessa Vera, Arsham Sheybani, Nathan Radcliffe, Brian A. Francis, Oluwatosin U. Smith, Robert J. Noecker, Richard Fiscella

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The Xen gel stent (Allergan Inc, an AbbVie company; Dublin, Ireland) was conceived as an option for patients requiring modest IOP reduction but for whom trabeculectomy was not yet indicated. As with any glaucoma surgery, establishing criteria for patient selection and identifying factors that contribute to a high likelihood of success are important. To help guide clinical decision-making, a systematic review of published studies on the gel stent was performed, with the goal of understanding postoperative outcomes based on clinical and patient factors. Results were organized around a series of pertinent clinical questions based on scenarios encountered in clinical practice. Criteria for including studies were intentionally broad, with the objective of simulating the diverse population of glaucoma patients encountered in real-world practice. Outcomes for IOP and medication reduction postopera-tively were assessed in various analyses, including in eyes with various glaucoma types and severity; in eyes naïve to surgery as well as those with a history of prior incisional glaucoma surgery; and when surgery was performed as a standalone procedure or at the time of cataract surgery. The results of each of the various analyses were consistent in demonstrating that successful gel stent surgery achieved a postoperative IOP of approximately 14.0 mm Hg and reduction to fewer than 1 glaucoma medication. Additional data are shown on outcomes by method of implant (ab interno vs ab externo); intraoperative use of antifibrotics; and rates of needling in published studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-46
Number of pages22
JournalClinical Ophthalmology
StatePublished - 2023


  • Xen
  • bleb
  • gel stent
  • glaucoma
  • glaucoma surgery


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