LEPTIN regulates adiposity by reducing caloric intake and increasing energy expenditure. Because loss of body weight is common during infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, we examined whether an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the lateral cerebral ventricle increases circulating leptin levels in fasted mice. Centrally injected LPS (100 ng) induced a two-fold elevation in plasma leptin 6, 12, and 18 h post-injection. Peripheral injection of the same dose of LPS did not affect leptin secretion. This suggests that inflammatory stimuli localized in the CNS are sufficient to induce leptin secretion in the periphery. The induction of leptin by inflammatory stimuli in the brain may be part of a feed-back loop that contributes to anorexia and cachexia in many CNS-oriented diseases.