We describe a child with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with a large subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had multiple saccular and fusiform aneurysms in the proximal cerebral arterial circulation and no evidence of bacterial or fungal infection. The arteriopathy coincided with a high human immunodeficiency virus RNA load. Human immunodeficiency virus may cause cerebral arteriopathy with potentially life-threatening complications. (C) 2000 by Elsevier Science Inc.