Intra-articular administration of vancomycin and tobramycin during primary cementless total knee arthroplasty Determination of intra-articular And serum elution Profiles

C. M. Lawrie, G. S. Kazarian, T. Barrack, R. M. Nunley, R. L. Barrack

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Abstract

Aims: Intra-articular administration of antibiotics during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may represent a safe, cost-effective strategy to reduce the risk of acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Vancomycin with an aminoglycoside provides antimicrobial cover for most organisms isolated from acute PJI after TKA. However, the intra-articular doses required to achieve sustained therapeutic intra-articular levels while remaining below toxic serum levels is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the intra-articular and serum levels of vancomycin and tobramycin over the first 24 hours postoperatively after intra-articular administration in primary cementless TKA. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Patients were excluded if they had poor renal function, known allergic reaction to vancomycin or tobramycin, received intravenous vancomycin, or were scheduled for same-day discharge. All patients received 600 mg tobramycin and 1 g of vancomycin powder suspended in 25 cc of normal saline and injected into the joint after closure of the arthrotomy. Serum from peripheral venous blood and drain fluid samples were collected at one, four, and 24 hours postoperatively. All concentrations are reported in μg per ml. Results: A total of 22 patients were included in final analysis. At one, four, and 24 hours postoperatively, mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) serum concentrations were 2.4 (0.7 to 4.1), 5.0 (3.1 to 6.9), and 4.8 (2.8 to 6.9) for vancomycin and 4.9 (3.4 to 6.3), 7.0 (5.8 to 8.2), and 1.3 (0.8 to 1.8) for tobramycin; intra-articular concentrations were 1,900.6 (1,492.5 to 2,308.8), 717.9 (485.5 to 950.3), and 162.2 (20.5 to 304.0) for vancomycin and 2,105.3 (1,389.9 to 2,820.6), 403.2 (266.6 to 539.7), and 98.8 (0 to 206.5) for tobramycin. Conclusion: Intra-articular administration of 1 g of vancomycin and 600 mg of tobramycin as a solution after closure of the arthrotomy in primary cementless TKA achieves therapeutic intra-articular concentrations over the first 24 hours postoperatively and does not reach sustained toxic levels in peripheral blood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1702-1708
Number of pages7
JournalBone and Joint Journal
Volume103 B
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

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