The last decade has seen increased use of aggressive, catheter-based methods of treating deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this article, we outline the risks, benefits, and uncertainties surrounding endovascular DVT therapies, describe clinical situations in which endovascular treatment options should reasonably be considered, and update the reader on new outcome data that pertains to catheter-based DVT interventions. Endovascular thrombolytic therapy is reasonable to perform for selected patients with DVT causing acute limb-threatening circulatory compromise, acute inferior vena cava occlusion, or acute iliofemoral DVT for the purposes of limb salvage and relief of presenting DVT symptoms, and appears likely to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in patients with proximal DVT. A multicenter randomized trial, the ATTRACT Study, is currently underway in the United States to determine whether pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) is sufficiently safe and effective to be recommended for routine use in proximal DVT patients. Selected patients with established moderate-to-severe PTS in association with an occluded iliac vein or a refluxing saphenous vein may also be amenable to endovascular intervention to reduce venous hypertension, alleviate symptoms, and improve limb function and quality of life. Pending the results of further studies, an individualized approach to patient selection for interventional DVT therapies is recommended.