The macrophage, a versatile cell type prominently involved in host defense and immunity, assumes a distinct state of alternative activation in the context of polarized type 2 immune responses such as allergic inflammation and helminth infection. This alternatively activated phenotype is induced by the canonical type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which mediate expression of several characteristic markers along with a dramatic shift in macrophage metabolic pathways that influence surrounding cells and tissues. We discuss recent advances in the understanding of IL-4-and IL-13-mediated alternatively activated macrophages and type 2 immune responses; such advances have led to an expanded appreciation for functions of these cells beyond immunity, including maintenance of physiologic homeostasis and tissue repair.
|Number of pages||27|
|Journal||Annual Review of Immunology|
|State||Published - Mar 1 2013|
- Th2 cell
- Type 2 immunity