Purpose To analyze primary tumor (PT) and lymph node (LN) position changes relative to each other and relative to anatomic landmarks during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancer. Methods and Materials In 12 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer PT, LN, carina, and 1 thoracic vertebra were manually contoured on weekly 4-dimensional fan-beam CT scans. Systematic and random interfraction displacements of all contoured structures were identified in the 3 cardinal directions, and resulting setup margins were calculated. Time trends and the effect of volume changes on displacements were analyzed. Results Three-dimensional displacement vectors and systematic/random interfraction displacements were smaller for carina than for vertebra both for PT and LN. For PT, mean (SD) 3-dimensional displacement vectors with carina-based alignment were 7 (4) mm versus 9 (5) mm with bony anatomy (P<.0001). For LN, smaller displacements were found with carina- (5  mm, P<.0001) and vertebra-based (6  mm, P=.002) alignment compared with using PT for setup (8  mm). Primary tumor and LN displacements relative to bone and carina were independent (P>.05). Displacements between PT and bone (P=.04) and between PT and LN (P=.01) were significantly correlated with PT volume regression. Displacements between LN and carina were correlated with LN volume change (P=.03). Conclusions Carina-based setup results in a more reproducible PT and LN alignment than bony anatomy setup. Considering the independence of PT and LN displacement and the impact of volume regression on displacements over time, repeated CT imaging even with PT-based alignment is recommended in locally advanced disease.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2014|