Interactions of dietary whole-grain intake with fasting glucose- and insulin-related genetic loci in individuals of European descent: A meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies

Jennifer A. Nettleton, Nicola M. McKeown, Stavroula Kanoni, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Marie France Hivert, Julius Ngwa, Frank J.A. Van Rooij, Emily Sonestedt, Mary K. Wojczynski, Zheng Ye, Tosh Tanaka, Melissa Garcia, Jennifer S. Anderson, Jack L. Follis, Luc Djousse, Kenneth Mukamal, Constantina Papoutsakis, Dariush Mozaffarian, M. Carola Zillikens, Stefania BandinelliAmanda J. Bennett, Ingrid B. Borecki, Mary F. Feitosa, Luigi Ferrucci, Nita G. Forouhi, Christopher J. Groves, Goran Hallmans, Tamara Harris, Albert Hofman, Denise K. Houston, Frank B. Hu, Ingegerd Johansson, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Claudia Langenberg, Lenore Launer, Yongmei Liu, Ruth J. Loos, Michael Nalls, Marju Orho-Melander, Frida Renstrom, Kenneth Rice, Ulf Riserus, Olov Rolandsson, Jerome I. Rotter, Georgia Saylor, Eric J.G. Sijbrands, Per Sjogren, Albert Smith, Laufey Steingrímsdóttir, André G. Uitterlinden, Nicholas J. Wareham, Inga Prokopenko, James S. Pankow, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Jose C. Florez, Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, Josée Dupuis, George V. Dedoussis, Jose M. Ordovas, Erik Ingelsson, L. Adrienne Cupples, David S. Siscovick, Paul W. Franks, James B. Meigs

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE - Whole-grain foods are touted for multiple health benefits, including enhancing insulin sensitivity and reducing type 2 diabetes risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in individuals free of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that whole-grain food intake and genetic variation interact to influence concentrations of fasting glucose and insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Via meta-analysis of data from 14 cohorts comprising ∼48,000 participants of European descent, we studied interactions of whole-grain intake with loci previously associated in GWAS with fasting glucose (16 loci) and/or insulin (2 loci) concentrations. For tests of interaction, we considered a P value <0.0028 (0.05 of 18 tests) as statistically significant. RESULTS - Greater whole-grain food intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (β [95% CI] per 1-serving-greater whole-grain intake: -0.009 mmol/l glucose [-0.013 to -0.005], P < 0.0001 and -0.011 pmol/l [ln] insulin [-0.015 to -0.007], P = 0.0003). No interactions met our multiple testing-adjusted statistical significance threshold. The strongest SNP interaction with whole-grain intake was rs780094 (GCKR) for fasting insulin (P = 0.006), where greater whole-grain intake was associated with a smaller reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in those with the insulin-raising allele.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2684-2691
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes care
Volume33
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010

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