The incidence of breast cancer has been on the rise in the United States over the past several decades. The advanced longevity of the population during this same time period, specifically of elderly women, translates to increases in the absolute number of women diagnosed with breast cancer yearly. This, in combination with decreasing mortality rates, has now led to an increase in the number of breast cancer survivors who need long-term follow-up. There has been significant debate over what tests should be obtained, how often they should be obtained, how long surveillance should be continued, and by whom this should be performed. We review the published guidelines for surveillance, available data regarding low- versus high-intensity surveillance plans, current practice patterns, and recommendations for future strategies.