An Important goal of the human genome project is to assemble fully integrated physical, genetic and cytogenetic maps for each human chromosome. Towards that end, we have isolated yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones containing 117 of the 119 genetic markers that constitute a recently constructed, detailed genetic map of human chromosome 7. Analysis of these clones reveals numerous examples where adjacent genetic markers have been physically connected, either In Individual YACs or in multi-YAC contigs. At present, the 117 genetic markers are contained In fewer than 80 YAC contigs, with most of these contigs uniquely ordered relative to one another based on the genetic map positions of the corresponding markers. These YAC and YAC contigs are estimated to contain ̃60-85% of the DNA from human chromosome 7. YACs representing 36 genetic markers were mapped by fluorescence In situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosomes, allowing assignment of these genetic markers to cytogenetic bands along chromosome 7 and placement of the centromere within the genetic map. Together, these studies provide genetically and cytogenetically anchored YAC clones covering the majority of chromosome 7 that will be useful both for the positional cloning of genes and as a framework for assembling a complete YAC-based physical map of the chromosome.