Success in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors has lagged behind that of other pediatric cancers. This paper highlights many of the advances that have taken place over the past few years in the surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic approaches to central nervous system lesions that we hope will lead to a dramatic improvement in outcome. Innovations in neurosurgical and radiotherapeutic techniques have resulted in decreasing toxicity although substantial improvement in cure rates has not been observed. Many new techniques such as gene therapy, angiogenesis inhibitors, immunotherapy, and others that have not been part of the classic approach to these lesions are now in clinical trials in the hope that they will impact on the survival of these patients. The scientific basis for these new treatment modalities and preliminary clinical results are discussed.