Inhibitors of HIF-1α and CXCR4 Mitigate the Development of Radiation Necrosis in Mouse Brain

Ruimeng Yang, Chong Duan, Liya Yuan, John A. Engelbach, Christina I. Tsien, Scott C. Beeman, Carlos J. Perez-Torres, Xia Ge, Keith M. Rich, Joseph J.H. Ackerman, Joel R. Garbow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Purpose: There is mounting evidence that, in addition to angiogenesis, hypoxia-induced inflammation via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)–CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset, irradiation-induced necrosis. This study investigates the mitigative efficacy of an HIF-1α inhibitor, topotecan, and a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, on the development of radiation necrosis (RN) in an intracranial mouse model. Methods and Materials: Mice received a single-fraction, 50-Gy dose of hemispheric irradiation from the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and were then treated with either topotecan, an HIF-1α inhibitor, from 1 to 12 weeks after irradiation, or AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, from 4 to 12 weeks after irradiation. The onset and progression of RN were monitored longitudinally via noninvasive, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 4 to 12 weeks after irradiation. Conventional hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to evaluate the treatment response. Results: The progression of brain RN was significantly mitigated for mice treated with either topotecan or AMD3100 compared with control animals. MRI-derived lesion volumes were significantly smaller for both of the treated groups, and histologic findings correlated well with the MRI data. By hematoxylin-eosin staining, both treated groups demonstrated reduced irradiation-induced tissue damage compared with controls. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results revealed that expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, CXC chemokine ligand 12, CD68, CD3, and tumor necrosis factor α in the lesion area were significantly lower in treated (topotecan or AMD3100) brains versus control brains, while ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and HIF-1α expression was similar, though somewhat reduced. CXCR4 expression was reduced only in topotecan-treated mice, while interleukin 6 expression was unaffected by either topotecan or AMD3100. Conclusions: By reducing inflammation, both topotecan and AMD3100 can, independently, mitigate the development of RN in the mouse brain. When combined with first-line, antiangiogenic treatment, anti-inflammation therapy may provide an adjuvant therapeutic strategy for clinical, postirradiation management of tumors, with additional benefits in the mitigation of RN development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1016-1025
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 15 2018


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