Background. Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on a variety of acute lung injuries, including lung allograft reperfusion injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of inhaled NO at the time of harvest on function of canine left lung allografts after transplantation. Methods. Ten dogs underwent left lung allotransplantation. Donor lungs were flushed with modified Euro-Collins solution and stored for 21 hours at 1°C. Immediately after transplantation, the contralateral main pulmonary artery and bronchus were ligated to assess isolated allograft function. Hemodynamics and arterial blood gases (inspired oxygen fraction, 1.0) were assessed intermittently for 6 hours prior to sacrifice. Allograft myeloperoxidase activity and wet to dry weight ratio were assessed. Donor animals were divided into two groups. Group I animals (n = 5) received no NO. In group II (n = 5), donors received inhaled NO (60 ppm) at the time of harvest. Results. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased to 79.6% of baseline because of inhalation of 60 ppm NO in group II donor animals. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive materials were reduced during the storage period in group II, a finding suggesting less oxidant injury during storage in donor lungs treated with NO. Throughout the 6-hour assessment, oxygenation in group II was superior to that in group I (p < 0.05). At 360 minutes of assessment, mean arterial oxygen tension in groups I and II was 88.9 ± 11.4 mm Hg and 169.1 ± 33.0 mm Hg, respectively. Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.05), data indicating reduced neutrophil sequestration. Wet to dry weight ratio was significantly lower in group II. Conclusions. These data suggest that inhaled NO at the time of harvest improves early function of preserved lung allografts by attenuating oxidant injury during storage and subsequent neutrophil sequestration.