After a 3-month course of weekly intravenous infusions of pooled normal plasma in an attempt at enzyme replacement therapy, we observed gradual and prolonged normalization of circulating alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in a boy with infantile hypophosphatasia. During this 4-month period, when hypophosphatasemia had been corrected, electrophoretic and heat denaturation studies suggested that the AP in serum was skeletal in origin. Serial radiographic and histologic studies of bone demonstrated skeletal remineralization and the appearance of AP activity in osteoblasts and chondrocytes after the infusions. Considerable clinical improvement coincided with the skeletal remineralization. Our observations indicate that in one patient with infantile hypophosphatasia the structural gene for the tissue-nonspecific (bone/liver/kidney) AP isoenzyme was intact and could be expressed with marked physiologic effect. Infantile hypophosphatasia may result from absence or inactivation of a circulating factor(s) that regulates the expression of the gene for tissue nonspecific AP.