Purpose: To evaluate a group of infants with this disorder to determine the long-term outcome of surgery and to assess the need for neurologic evaluations. Methods: This interventional case series reviewed the records of infants who underwent surgery for the treatment of exotropia with onset during the first year of life. The preoperative ophthalmic and systemic findings, treatment, and developmental and ophthalmic outcomes were reviewed. Surgery was considered successful if the horizontal deviation was less than 10 prism diopters (PD). Developmental assessments were obtained at each visit. Results: Twenty-six patients presented between age 2 and 10 months with exotropia ranging from 20 to 95 PD. Ten (38%) patients had a developmental delay that was recognized at the first visit, 9 of whom had a systemic diagnosis at that time; the other patients remained developmentally normal during a mean follow-up of 7 years. Age at surgery ranged from 4 to 18 months. Surgery was successful in 10 (38%) of 26 patients after 1 surgery and in an additional 13 (50%) of 26 patients after a second surgery. Conclusions: In this study, the need for more than 1 surgery was higher in infantile exotropia when compared to other forms of childhood strabismus, but most children achieved good alignment with one or two surgeries. Developmental delay is common in patients with infantile exotropia, but this was usually recognized at the time of the initial evaluation. In the current patients, routine neurologic screening or imaging of these otherwise developmentally normal infants was not required.