Infant Heart Transplantation Ten Years Later-Where Are They Now?

Sanjiv K. Gandhi, Charles E. Canter, Agnieszka Kulikowska, Charles B. Huddleston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Many uncertainties regarding the fate of children undergoing heart transplantation as infants were present when we and others embarked on this program. Although no truly long-term results are available, a significant cohort of children has now reached preteen and early teenage status. We reviewed our group of infants transplanted more than 10 years ago to assess survival and quality of life as they approach their teenage years. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all infant (younger than 6 months of age) heart transplant recipients, transplanted between 1988 and 1995, to ascertain survival statistics, incidence of complications, and current health status. Results: A total of 42 patients were identified. The majority of these underwent transplantation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Eleven patients have died, 4 early and 7 late. The actual survival at 10 years is 76%. Twenty-seven of the 31 long-term survivors attend regular school; 4 are in special education classes owing to developmental delay. Five patients take medication for attention-deficit disorder. Malignancies have been discovered in 5, and 1 died secondary to this. Six patients have significant renal insufficiency, 1 of whom has undergone renal transplantation. One patient has undergone retransplantation for coronary artery disease. One patient required reoperation for supravalvar aortic stenosis. Other general medical problems that are being treated include sleep apnea (n = 1), hypertension (n = 5), and recurrent pneumonias (n = 1). Conclusions: Although these children require ongoing medical attention, including daily medications and regular follow-up visits, most have a satisfactory quality of life and behave much like normal children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-172
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007


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