Objective. To investigate the effect of synovial fluid (SF) from patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) on proliferation and induction of degradative and invasive phenotype in normal synovial fibroblasts, and to elucidate the contribution of SF cells to this activity. Methods. SF and/or conditioned medium (CM) from SF cells were evaluated for their ability to (I) stimulate a proliferative response, (2) induce the 'activated phenotype' capable of invading cartilage matrix, and (3) promote the release of key matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in normal synovial fibroblasts. Results. Proliferation of normal synovial fibroblasts exposed to SF or CM from SF cells of patients with JRA was up to 3 times greater than untreated controls. Concomitant with induction of an activated phenotype in the treated synovial fibroblasts, the activated form exhibited up to 250% invasiveness of cartilage matrix compared to untreated synovial fibroblasts (100%), in addition to releasing increased MMP activity, not normally associated with these quiescent cells. This induction was not solely due to tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin 1β (IL- lB), and IL-6, as SF and/or CM depleted of these cytokines sustained about 40% of their invasive and inducing ability. We observed that the mononuclear cell (MNC) population that infiltrated into the joint cavity secretes this 'inducing activity,' which can he maintained in culture up to several weeks. Conclusion. Our data suggest that the cellular component of SF releases soluble factor(s) that directly or indirectly contribute to (a) proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and (b) production and release of extracellular MMP by synovial fibroblasts, thereby inducing a degradative and invasive phenotype culminating in cartilage and bone destruction.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Rheumatology|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1997|
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- Mononuclear cells
- Synovial fibroblasts
- Synovial fluid