Individual differences in time perspective predict autonoetic experience

Kathleen M. Arnold, Kathleen B. McDermott, Karl K. Szpunar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Tulving (1985) posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity-autonoetic (self-knowing) consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for " mental time travel" both into the past (remembering) and into the future to envision potential future episodes (episodic future thinking). The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on two of the five subscales of the ZTPI (Future and Present-Hedonistic) predicted the degree to which people reported feelings of mentally traveling backward (or forward) in time and the degree to which they reported re- or pre-experiencing the event, but not ten other rated properties less related to autonoetic consciousness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)712-719
Number of pages8
JournalConsciousness and Cognition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2011


  • Autonoetic consciousness
  • Consciousness
  • Episodic future thought
  • Individual differences
  • Mental time travel
  • Remembering
  • Time perspective


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