Increasing Participation of Women in Cardiovascular Trials: JACC Council Perspectives

Cardiovascular Disease in Women Committee Leadership Council

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Although some progress has been made in the last 3 decades to increase the number of women in clinical cardiology trials, review of recent cardiovascular literature demonstrates that women and underrepresented minority women are still underrepresented in most clinical cardiology trials. This is especially notable in trials of patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and arrhythmia studies, especially those involving devices and procedures. Despite the call from National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, Institute of Medicine, and various professional societies, the gap remains. This paper seeks to identify the barriers for low enrollment and retention from patient, clinician, research team, study design, and system perspectives, and offers recommendations to improve recruitment and retention in the current era.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-751
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 17 2021


  • cardiology trials
  • cardiovascular disease
  • congestive heart failure
  • underrepresented minority
  • women


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