Fifteen children and adolescents who had repair of coarctation of the aorta before age 15, who were not hypertensive at rest, and who had resting arm-leg blood pressure gradients of <20 mm Hg underwent noninvasive evaluation of left ventricular structure and function, aortic stiffness, and residual coarctation as well as bicycle exercise testing. These results were compared with those in 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The mean resting age-related systolic blood pressure percentiles (63% versus 46%), transverse aortic stiffness measured by the elastic modulus (Ep) (42.1 versus 23.2 kPa), stiffness index beta (β) (3.66 versus 2.17), echocardiographic left ventricular fractional shortening (0.42 versus 0.36), left ventricular mass index (99.3 versus 81.0 gm/m2), maximum exercise right arm systolic blood pressure (173 versus 156 mm Hg), and exercise arm-leg blood pressure gradient (35 versus 6 mm Hg) were significantly increased in the coarctectomy patients compared with controls. Univariate correlations in the coarctectomy group showed significant relationships of residual aortic narrowing with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and resting systolic blood pressure percentile for age (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Residual aortic narrowing did not significantly correlate with aortic stiffness, resting blood pressure gradient, or exercise blood pressure gradient. Neither left ventricular mass index nor resting systolic blood pressure percentile significantly correlated with age of repair or years after repair. These results demonstrate persistent abnormalities in aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass and function after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta in childhood and adolescence. Mild degrees of residual aortic narrowing may affect resting blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Elevated blood pressure and blood pressure gradients between upper and lower extremities during exercise may be a reflection of increased arterial stiffness in the upper body as well as mild persistent coarctation.