Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate number and types of synchronous and metachronous malignancies in patients with endometrial carcinoma with and without microsatellite instability (MSI). Experimental Design: From a series of 413 endometrial cancer patients, we identified 94 patients with MSI-positive (MSI+) cancers and grouped them by tumor MLH1 promoter methylation status. These 94 patients were matched by year of surgery to 94 patients with MSI-negative (MSI-) endometrial cancers from the same series. Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathologic information including rates and types of synchronous and metachronous malignancies. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-associated second and third cancers were analyzed for MSI and MSH2, MSH6, and MLH1 expression for comparison with the corresponding endometrial cancers. Results: The MSI+ and MSI- cohorts were similar with regard to age, race, grade, and histology. Twenty-eight MSI+ endometrial cancers (29.8%) were MLH1 unmethylated. Rates of synchronous and metachronous cancers were also similar in the MSI+ and MSI- groups at 20 and 23%, respectively. However, patients with MSI+ MLH1 unmethylated endometrial cancers had an excess of HNPCC-associated second and third cancers compared with those with MSI+ MLH1 methylated and MSI- endometrial cancers (18% versus 4.5%, P = 0.034, and 2.1%, P = 0.002). Six of seven second tumors from 5 patients with MSI+ MLH1 unmethylated endometrial cancers showed concordant MSI and mismatch repair protein expression status. Conclusions: Our observation that patients with MSI- positive MLH1 unmethylated endometrial carcinoma are at increased risk for HNPCC-associated synchronous and metachronous malignancies suggests inherited cancer susceptibility. These patients and their families may warrant more intense cancer surveillance.